Round 2 a.m. on March 19, Adam Wooden, a San Francisco firefighter on obligation, obtained a 911 name and raced to town’s Mission neighborhood to assist a male who was having a medical emergency. After loading the affected person into an ambulance, a black-and-white automobile pulled up and blocked the trail.
It was a driverless automobile operated by Waymo, an autonomous automobile firm that Google’s guardian, Alphabet, owned. With no human driver to instruct to maneuver out of the best way, Mr. Wooden spoke by a tool within the automobile to a distant operator, who mentioned somebody would come take the automobile away.
As an alternative, one other autonomous Waymo automobile arrived and blocked the opposite facet of the road, Mr. Wooden mentioned. The ambulance was lastly capable of depart after being pressured to again up, and the affected person, who was not in vital situation, made it to the hospital. However the self-driving automobiles added seven minutes to the emergency response, he mentioned.
“All that was misplaced time for no cause,” Mr. Wooden, 55, mentioned.
His expertise was an indication of how self-driving taxis are more and more beginning to take a toll on metropolis companies. In San Francisco and Austin, Texas, the place passengers can hail autonomous automobiles, the automobiles have slowed down emergency response times, induced accidents, increased congestion and added to the workloads of native officers, mentioned cops, firefighters and different metropolis staff.
In San Francisco, greater than 600 self-driving automobile incidents had been documented from June 2022 to June 2023, in line with town’s Municipal Transportation Company. After one episode the place a driverless automobile from Cruise, a subsidiary of Common Motors, ran over and dragged a pedestrian, California regulators ordered the company to suspend its service final month. Kyle Vogt, Cruise’s chief government, resigned on Sunday.
In Austin, metropolis officers mentioned there have been 52 autonomous automobile incidents from July 8 to Oct. 24, together with a first-of-its-kind crash by a prototype robotaxi with no steering wheel right into a “small electrical constructing.”
To deal with the fallout, San Francisco has designated no less than one metropolis worker to work on autonomous automobile insurance policies and requested two transportation businesses to compile and handle a database of incidents based mostly on 911 calls, social media posts and worker experiences. This summer season, Austin additionally shaped an inner process pressure to assist log driverless automobile incidents.
“Lots of people on the duty pressure are juggling this in addition to different regular day-to-day operations,” mentioned Matthew McElearney, a coaching captain on the Austin Fireplace Division. “In my job description, it doesn’t say ‘a process pressure member.’”
San Francisco and Austin provide a preview of what to anticipate somewhere else. Whereas self-driving automobiles have been examined in additional than two dozen U.S. cities through the years, these trials have moved into a more moderen part the place human drivers — who as soon as rode alongside on autonomous automobile rides — not keep within the automobiles throughout rides. Waymo and Cruise then began providing absolutely driverless taxi companies in some cities with these automobiles.
Cruise has since suspended its autonomous vehicle operations. However Waymo and others proceed growing and testing their automobiles in potential markets and the expertise will unfold, mentioned Bryant Walker Smith, a College of South Carolina professor who has suggested the federal authorities on automated driving.
Cruise had examined its driverless taxis in San Francisco, Austin and Phoenix and deliberate to broaden to Houston, Dallas and Miami. Waymo, which offers driverless rides in Phoenix and San Francisco, mentioned it will subsequent roll out its companies in Los Angeles and Austin. Zoox, one other self-driving automobile firm, mentioned it deliberate to introduce robotaxis in San Francisco and Las Vegas however didn’t present a time-frame.
Different cities the place self-driving automobiles have been examined are making ready for when robotaxis are absolutely deployed. The Nashville Fireplace Division mentioned it was creating an annual coaching for firefighters in regards to the automobiles. Seattle’s Fireplace Division mentioned it had added questions of safety with driverless automobiles to the duties of an worker throughout every shift.
Some cities mentioned their expertise with robotaxis had been smoother. Kate Gallego, the mayor of Phoenix, the place Waymo has run autonomous taxi companies since 2020, mentioned the corporate met extensively with native officers and performed security assessments earlier than deploying a fleet of 200 automobiles to places together with the airport.
“Our residents have usually actually appreciated this service,” she mentioned.
Waymo, Cruise and Zoox mentioned that they had labored intently with officers in lots of cities and continued to enhance their automobiles to attenuate the consequences on native companies. Waymo added that it had “no proof of our automobiles blocking an ambulance” on March 19 in San Francisco.
Few cities have grappled extra with self-driving automobiles than San Francisco. Google, whose headquarters are in close by Silicon Valley, began testing driverless automobiles within the metropolis in 2009 and launched robotaxi companies in November 2022. Cruise, based in San Francisco in 2013, began testing its automobiles on town’s roads in 2015 and supplied its first driverless experience to passengers in February 2022.
Lots of of the automobiles have since wound their method by San Francisco streets. At one level, Waymo had 250 driverless automobiles within the metropolis, whereas Cruise had 300 out throughout the day and 100 at night time. Residents incessantly noticed the automobiles — sedans outfitted with greater than a dozen cameras and high-tech sensors, some spinning on their roofs — driving by.
In July 2018, town’s Municipal Transportation Company requested Julia Friedlander, a transportation coverage veteran, to work on understanding how San Francisco could be affected by self-driving automobiles. She met with autonomous automobile firms and state regulators, who situation permits to the businesses for testing and working their automobiles, to debate town’s considerations about security and congestion.
After 5 years, there are nonetheless no systematic state security and incident reporting requirements for driverless automobiles in California, Ms. Friedlander mentioned. “That is such a dramatic type of change in transportation that it’s going to take a few years for the regulatory construction to essentially be finalized,” she mentioned.
Final 12 months, the variety of 911 calls from San Francisco residents about robotaxis started rising, metropolis officers mentioned. In a single three-month interval, 28 incidents had been reported, in line with a letter that metropolis officers despatched to the Nationwide Freeway Visitors Security Administration.
By June, autonomous automobile incidents in San Francisco had risen to such a “regarding degree” that town’s Fireplace Division created a separate autonomous automobile incident type, mentioned Darius Luttropp, a deputy chief of the division. As of Oct. 15, 87 incidents had been recorded with the shape.
“We transfer ahead with expectations that this marvel expertise will function like a human driver,” Mr. Luttropp mentioned. “That didn’t transform the case.”
Mr. Wooden, the firefighter, attended a weeklong coaching session held by Waymo in June on the Fireplace Division’s coaching middle to be taught extra in regards to the self-driving automobiles. However he mentioned he was disenchanted.
“None of us walked away from the coaching with any solution to get a stalled automobile to maneuver,” he mentioned, including that manually taking up the automobile takes 10 minutes, which is simply too lengthy in an emergency.
His foremost takeaway was that he ought to bang on the automobile’s window or faucet on its door so he might discuss to the automobile’s distant operator, he mentioned. The operator would then attempt to remotely re-engage the automobile or ship somebody to manually override it, he mentioned.
Waymo mentioned it had rolled out a software program replace to its automobiles in October that may let firefighters and different authorities take management of the automobiles inside seconds.
After the California Public Utilities Fee, a state regulator, voted in August to allow an expansion of robotaxi services in San Francisco, Waymo and Cruise began assembly each two weeks with town’s fireplace, police and emergency administration departments.
Jeanine Nicholson, San Francisco’s fireplace chief, mentioned her division was now at a “respectable place” with the businesses and added that Cruise’s suspension supplied extra time to work out points with the automobiles in emergency conditions. However she anticipated extra conferences and changes as different self-driving firms moved in.
“Time goes to be taken up, and we have now an entire fireplace division — an entire metropolis — to run,” Ms. Nicholson mentioned.